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Weekly Trend: World and US Trending Coronavirus questions, past week 2020-07

COVID-19 affects different people in different ways. Infected people have had a wide range of symptoms reported – from mild symptoms to severe illness.


ST. LOUIS, July 18, 2020 /MateFit/ --Symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. People with these symptoms may have COVID-19:

Fever or chills
Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
Muscle or body aches
New loss of taste or smell
Sore throat
Congestion or runny nose
Nausea or vomiting
News Weekly Trend World and US Trending Coronavirus questions, past week 2020-07-18 - Teatox CO
Look for emergency warning signs for COVID-19. If someone is showing any of these signs, seek emergency medical care immediately:
Trouble breathing
Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
New confusion
Inability to wake or stay awake
Bluish lips or face
Call your medical provider for any other symptoms that are severe or concerning to you.
1) Is sore throat a symptom of coronavirus?
COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, also known as the new coronavirus. COVID-19 can have a wide variety of symptoms, including a sore throat.

But a sore throat is only one of the symptoms that may develop due to COVID-19. Some other symptoms are much more common.

In this article we’ll explore a sore throat as a symptom of COVID-19, other symptoms to watch out for, and when to seek medical care.

Is a sore throat a common symptom of COVID-19?
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the symptoms that develop with COVID-19 can varyTrusted Source from one person to another.

A sore throat can be one symptom of COVID-19. At this point in time, it isn’t well documented when exactly a sore throat occurs in the course of the infection.

In other respiratory illnesses, like the common cold, a sore throat is often an early symptom. Because respiratory viruses are inhaled, they enter your nose and throat first. They may replicate there early on, leading to throat soreness and irritation.

Overall, a sore throat isn’t a very common COVID-19 symptom. A study in China, commissioned by the World Health Organization (WHO), found that out of more than 55,000 confirmed cases, only 13.9 percentTrusted Source of people reported a sore throat.

Two smaller studies in China have also found that a sore throat is a less common COVID-19 symptom. One study reported it in only 5 percentTrusted Source of cases, while the other reported a sore throat in 7.1 percentTrusted Source of cases.

What other symptoms are often warning signs of COVID-19?
Other symptoms are more common signs of COVID-19. According to the WHO, the three most common symptoms are:

cough, which can be dry or wet
Along with a sore throat, other less common COVID-19 symptoms that have been reported include:

shortness of breath
body aches and pains
runny or stuffy nose
digestive symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
loss of smell or taste
Keep in mind that we’re still learning more about the new coronavirus and COVID-19, the illness it causes, every day. Because of this, the type and frequency of symptoms could change as more are discovered.

COVID-19 symptoms vs. cold or flu symptoms
If you develop a sore throat or other symptoms of a respiratory infection, how do you know if it’s due to COVID-19, a cold, or the seasonal flu?

The simple answer: The only sure way to rule out COVID-19 is to be tested for it.

Other factors can also help you distinguish between these three illnesses:

COVID-19. Symptoms often develop graduallyTrusted Source. To date, the most commonly reported symptoms are fever, cough, and fatigue. Other symptoms occur with less frequency.
Common cold. Symptoms can also appear gradually. But the most common early symptoms are sore throat and a runny or stuffy nose. Fevers can occur, but are typically rare.
Flu. Symptoms come on suddenly. The flu shares many symptoms with COVID-19. But common flu symptoms — like chills, headache, and body aches and pains — are less common with COVID-19.
What should you do if you have concerning symptoms?
If you develop a sore throat or other symptoms and think you may have COVID-19, take the following steps:

Stay home. Plan to go out only to seek medical care. If you live with other people, try to distance yourself from them as much as possible.
Call your doctor. Let them know about your symptoms. They’ll give you information on how to care for yourself while you’re ill and may also arrange for you to be tested for COVID-19.
Keep track of your symptoms. Most people with COVID-19 can recover at home; however, about 1 in 5 peopleTrusted Source develops a more serious illness. If your symptoms begin to worsen, get prompt medical attention.
What can help ease your sore throat?
If you have mild COVID-19 symptoms with a sore throat, you can take some steps to help ease your symptoms at home. These include:

Drink plenty of fluids to stay hydrated while you recover. Warm liquids like broths or tea with honey may help to soothe throat irritation and soreness.
Try gargling with a salt water solution to help lessen sore throat pain.
Suck on throat lozenges or hard candies, which can help keep your throat moist by stimulating saliva production.
Use a humidifier to add moisture to the air. Taking a steamy shower may also help ease throat irritation.
Rest up to help your body’s immune system fight off the infection.
Consider using over-the-counter medications to ease pain. Examples include acetaminophen (Tylenol), naproxen (Aleve), and aspirin.
When to seek medical care
In some people, COVID-19 may progress to include more serious symptoms. This typically happens 5 to 8 daysTrusted Source after you become ill.

Seek immediate medical care if you have any of the following symptoms:

difficulty breathing
chest pain or pressure
lips, face, or nails that appear blue in color
mental confusion
trouble staying awake or difficulty waking up
The bottom line
A sore throat is a potential symptom of COVID-19. But it’s less common than other symptoms, such as fever, cough, and fatigue.

If you have a sore throat or other symptoms and think you may have COVID-19, stay home and call your doctor to discuss your symptoms. They can let you know how to care for yourself and may suggest that you get tested for COVID-19.

Although most cases of COVID-19 are mild, some may progress to a serious illness. Don’t hesitate to seek emergency medical care if you experience symptoms like trouble breathing or chest pain.
Courtesy: healthline
2) Can Mosquitoes Carry the Coronavirus? Here's What Experts Say?
Mosquito season is upon us, and considering that these bloodsuckers are known to transmit diseases, people are concerned: Do mosquitoes carry the coronavirus? And if so, can they transmit it to humans and infect a person with COVID-19?

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Short answer: it's unlikely. Official guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) says there’s no information or evidence to suggest that the new coronavirus could be transmitted through mosquito bites.

For starters, the coronavirus is a respiratory virus, and the main mode of transmission are viral droplets released into the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. For a mosquito to become infected with a virus, it must be present in the blood the mosquito feeds on.

“SARS-CoV2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) is a respiratory virus that is almost exclusively contained within the lungs and respiratory tract of infected people, and rarely gets into the blood,” Emily Gallichotte, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher in the department of microbiology, immunology, and pathology at Colorado State University, tells Health.

Plus, for a virus to pass to a person through a mosquito or other kind of insect bite—such as a tick bite—the virus must be able to replicate inside the mosquito or tick. Neither the new coronavirus nor any other type of coronavirus has been shown to do that.

“It’s quite a complex process,” former US Navy entomologist Joseph M. Conlon, who has extensive worldwide experience in mosquito control and is technical advisor to the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA), tells Health. “First of all, the mosquito would have to pick up the requisite amount of virus during its bite. The virus must then not only survive the digestive process, but replicate within the mosquito and pass through the gut wall to the coelom (main body cavity) of the mosquito. From there it must make its way to the salivary glands and be expressed by the mosquito as part of its salivary secretions.”

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Furthermore, mosquitoes are very genetically different from humans. “This makes it challenging for viruses to have the ability to infect both of us,” says Gallichotte. “We have different receptors on the surface of cells and different replication machinery inside our cells.”

Relatively few human viruses have the ability to infect both humans and mosquitoes. “The vast majority of human viruses (such as influenza, HIV, and herpes) have been infecting humans for a very very long time, and even though many of these end up in our blood, they are still unable to infect mosquitoes,” says Gallichotte. “Conversely, there are many mosquito viruses that are unable to infect humans, or any mammals. There are no known coronaviruses that can infect mosquitoes.”

Viruses that can be spread to humans by mosquitoes include West Nile virus, the virus that causes dengue fever, and chikungunya virus, which all circulate in the blood of infected people. “West Nile virus is able to infect a mosquito to the point where the virus load is abundant in the salivary glands,” Melissa Doyle, scientific program manager at the San Gabriel Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District (SGVMVCD), tells Health. “When the mosquito bites a person, the virus is able to travel from the salivary glands into the human body.”

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So it’s pretty clear that COVID-19 is the last thing you should be worrying about if a mosquito has been feasting on your leg. Keep swatting them away, though. “Due to the heavy focus on COVID-19, many people may forget that disease threats may already be buzzing right outside their window.” SGVMVCD Public Information Officer Levy Sun tells Health.

Conlon points out that mosquitoes can factor into the severity of COVID-19, meaning it’s crucial to maintain robust measures to reduce their numbers. “Studies have shown that factors contributing to potentially serious or fatal outcomes attendant to COVID-19 infection involve underlying medical issues, such as neurologic conditions that weaken the ability to cough or an already stressed immune system due to concurrent infection by mosquito-borne viruses,” he says.

Mosquitoes or no mosquitoes, it’s still crucial to keep following healthy coronavirus protocol to protect yourself and others from COVID-19. Clean your hands frequently, practice social distancing, stay home if you’re sick, and avoid close contact with anyone who is coughing and sneezing.

The information in this story is accurate as of press time. However, as the situation surrounding COVID-19 continues to evolve, it's possible that some data have changed since publication. While Health is trying to keep our stories as up-to-date as possible, we also encourage readers to stay informed on news and recommendations for their own communities by using the CDC, WHO, and their local public health department as resources.
Courtesy: health
3) Is the coronavirus airborne?
The coronavirus is not ‘airborne’ like tuberculous, measles, or smallpox for example, which can circulate in the air. However, there may be some evidence to suggest it is airbourne. Transmission of COVID-19 occurs primarily through aerosolized respiratory droplets which can spread the virus and can cause infection in others.

When someone coughs, sneezes, or talks, these droplets can infect another person if they get into their airways. Droplets typically do not travel more than six feet (about two meters) and do not linger in the air. A social distance of 6 feet intends to protect you against infecting another person or becoming infected. Still, the CDC is now recommending the use of face masks in public.

Infected surfaces that have viruses can also lead to infection. And under experimental conditions, the virus can stay alive in air for several hours. Because we don’t know and completely understand this virus, it’s a good idea to take airborne precautions .
Courtesy: webmd
4) COVID-19: how to treat coronavirus at home?
he majority of people who are infected with coronavirus experience a mild or asymptomatic disease which can be treated at home. So if you're experiencing the tell-tale signs of the virus, what should you do to feel better?

You can find our latest features and advice on coronavirus and COVID-19 in our coronavirus hub.

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Use Patient's coronavirus checker tool if you have any symptoms of fever or a new cough. Until you have used the tool and been advised what action to take, please stay at home and avoid contact with other people.

What are the symptoms?
The symptoms of COVID-19, the disease caused by coronavirus, include:

Fever (a temperature above 37.8°C or skin which feels hot to touch).
A new, continuous cough.
Shortness of breath and difficulty breathing.
Sore throat.
Aches and pains.
If you experience fever or a new continuous cough you should self-isolate immediately. Those experiencing a mild illness don't need to seek medical attention.

However, you should use the Patient coronavirus checker tool again to find out what to do next if:

You cannot cope with your symptoms at home.
Your condition gets worse.
You still have fever, are feeling generally unwell or have other symptoms after a week.
You are unable to do everyday tasks such as looking at your phone, reading or getting out of bed.
Looking after yourself at home
As with other viruses such as colds and flu, taking it easy and looking after yourself are crucial to your recovery. You should:

Drink plenty of fluids. Drink enough water so that your pee is a pale, clear colour. Avoid alcohol as this will make you more dehydrated.
Get plenty of rest. You should isolate yourself at home if you have any symptoms of coronavirus and avoid any strenuous activity whilst you are unwell.
Use over-the-counter medicines to treat some of your symptoms.
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There is not currently a cure for COVID-19 or a vaccine against coronavirus. The aim of treatment is to manage and reduce symptoms until you have recovered.

Most people - around 80% - have an asymptomatic or mild infection which can be treated at home. In this case, you should self-isolate for at least one week until you have recovered.

One in five people who contract COVID-19 will require hospital care. Around 15% of cases experience a severe infection requiring oxygen to help with respiratory symptoms. 5% experience critical infections, requiring ventilation. Those at a higher risk of severe or critical infections include older people and those with underlying health conditions.

For most viral infections, including flu and the common cold, simple painkillers such as paracetamol and NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as ibuprofen are widely recommended.

However, in a comment in March, France's health minister, Olivier Véran, claimed that NSAIDs could increase the risk of severe COVID-19 infection and complications. While it investigated the claims, the NHS recommended that people should avoid using NSAIDs if they had symptoms of COVID-19, although they could continue to take them if they were using them for other reasons such as arthritis.

The UK's Commission on Human Medicines drew up an urgent expert working group to look at the evidence. On 14th April, they published guidance stating that: "There is currently insufficient evidence to establish a link between use of ibuprofen, or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and susceptibility to contracting COVID-19 or the worsening of its symptoms.

Patients can take paracetamol or ibuprofen when self-medicating for symptoms of COVID-19, such as fever and headache, and should follow NHS advice if they have any questions or if symptoms get worse."

Other symptoms
Some of the medications and treatments you might use to treat colds and flu will also help with coronavirus symptoms. Cough medicines or cough suppressants can help reduce your cough. Throat lozenges and remedies like honey and lemon may improve a sore throat.

If you have antibiotics lying around at home, do not take them to treat coronavirus. As it is a virus, antibiotics will not improve coronavirus. You should never take antibiotics which haven't been prescribed for a certain condition.

Antibacterial handwashes (unless they're also labelled as antiviral), cleaning products and hand sanitisers also won't be effective in killing the virus on surfaces or your hands for the same reasons.

Traditional remedies
There are many natural 'cures' and herbal remedy ideas floating around the internet and in health stores. Currently, we aren't aware of any remedy to cure COVID-19, so don't be fooled by the 'miracle' treatments some people are trying to sell.

When to seek medical attention
If your illness is worsening or your symptoms haven't improved after seven days, you should seek medical attention as soon as possible. If it's not an emergency, contact NHS 111 online. If you have no internet access, call 111.

If there is an emergency and you need an ambulance, call 999 and tell the call handler that you have coronavirus.

Even under the new measures announced by the government to prevent people from leaving their homes for non-essential purposes, you are still able to seek medical care of all kinds. You should not see your GP or pharmacist if you think you might have coronavirus.

Any routine medical or dental appointments which you had previously booked should normally be cancelled whilst you are sick and at home. If you are asked to attend whilst isolating or you have concerns, call the practice or hospital first.

This article was updated on 16th April 2020 following a statement from the Commission on Human Medicines about the use of ibuprofen
Courtesy: patient
5) Diarrhea and Other Confirmed Gastrointestinal Symptoms of COVID-19?
COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by a new form of the coronavirus that was discovered in December 2019. Coronavirus is a family of viruses that causes several human diseases, including the common cold, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

The majority of people who develop COVID-19 either have mild symptoms or no symptoms. Adults over age 65Trusted Source and people with pre-existing medical conditions are at the highest risk of developing severe complications.

The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, tiredness, and a dry cough. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source, 83 to 99 percent of people will develop a fever, 59 to 82 percent will develop a cough, and 44 to 70 percent will experience fatigue.

Other common flu-like symptoms associated with COVID-19 include:

shortness of breath
sore throat
loss of taste or smell
muscle pain
Some people may develop gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, loss of appetite, or vomiting even in the absence of other flu-like symptoms.

Diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms of COVID-19
Some people with COVID-19 develop gastrointestinal symptoms either alone or with respiratory symptoms.

Recently, researchers at Stanford University found that a third of patients they studied with a mild case of COVID-19 had symptoms affecting the digestive system.

Another recent studyTrusted Source published by researchers in Beijing found that anywhere from 3 to 79 percent of people with COVID-19 develop gastrointestinal symptoms.

Diarrhea commonly occurs in people with COVID-19. One studyTrusted Source published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology examined 206 patients with a mild case of COVID-19. They found 48 people had only digestive symptoms and another 69 had both digestive and respiratory symptoms.

Of the combined total of 117 people with gastric distress, 19.4 percent experienced diarrhea as their first symptom.

The research from BeijingTrusted Source found that vomiting is more common in children with COVID-19 than adults.

The researchers analyzed all the COVID-19 clinical studies and case reports related to digestive issues published between December 2019 and February 2020. They found that 3.6 to 15.9 percent of adults experienced vomiting, compared with 6.5 to 66.7 percent of children.

Loss of appetite
Many people who develop COVID-19 report losing their appetite, often alongside other gastrointestinal symptoms.

According to the same study from Beijing, about 39.9 to 50.2 percent of people experience a loss of appetite.

Other digestive symptoms
Several other digestive symptoms have been reported by people with COVID-19. According to the study from Beijing:

1 to 29.4 percent of people experience nausea
2.2 to 6 percent experience abdominal pain
4 to 13.7 percent experience gastrointestinal bleeding
Is it possible to have diarrhea with no fever?
Some people may experience diarrhea without other flu-like symptoms, like a fever. Diarrhea can be the first symptom of COVID-19.

In some cases, flu symptoms may come on after diarrhea. Some people may only experience gastrointestinal symptoms without developing any of the more common symptoms.

What’s the link between COVID-19 and gastrointestinal symptoms?
ResearchTrusted Source suggests that the virus that causes COVID-19 can enter your digestive system through cell surface receptors for an enzyme called angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Receptors for this enzyme are 100 times more common in the gastrointestinal tract than the respiratory tract.

What if you already have gastrointestinal disorders?
People with some gastrointestinal disorders, like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are at an increased riskTrusted Source of developing some types of viral infections.

However, research hasn’t yet found that people with IBD are more likely to develop COVID-19 than people without IBD.

New information about COVID-19 is emerging rapidly. As researchers collect more data, it’s possible that research will find that having IBD does increase your risk for developing COVID-19.

According to researchersTrusted Source at an IBD center in Milan, people with IBD should take extra precautions to avoid the virus. These include:

frequent handwashing
covering your face when coughing and sneezing
avoiding people with flu-like symptoms
staying at home when possible
Some of the medications used to treat IBD may suppress your immune system. The International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease has released a list of recommendations related to COVID-19 and how to manage IBD. However, even among experts, there are varying opinions about some of the guidelines.

If you have IBD and have tested positive for COVID-19, speak to your doctor about whether you should stop taking certain medications.

What to do if you have gastrointestinal symptoms
Gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, loss of appetite, or nausea can have many causes other than COVID-19. Experiencing any of these symptoms doesn’t mean you have COVID-19, but they may be early warning signs.

You can treat the digestive symptoms of COVID-19 at home by staying hydrated, avoiding foods that upset your stomach, and getting as much rest as possible.

When to see a doctor
If your symptoms are mild, stay home and minimize contact with other people. More than 80 percent of people with COVID-19 will develop mild symptoms.

If you want to get in touch with a doctor, many clinics offer phone or video appointments to reduce the spread of the virus. It’s a good idea to avoid going to the hospital. Even if you have mild symptoms, you can still transmit the disease to other people, including healthcare workers.

If you develop more serious symptoms, seek immediate medical attention. According to the CDCTrusted Source, the following are emergency symptoms:

trouble breathing
pain or pressure in the chest
confusion or an inability to wake
blue lips or face
People with COVID-19 may experience gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea, vomiting, or loss of appetite. These symptoms might occur alone or with other flu-like symptoms such as fever and coughing.

If you think you have COVID-19, try to isolate yourself to avoid transmitting the virus to other people. If you develop serious symptoms such as shortness of breath, seek immediate medical attention.
Courtesy: healthline
6) COVID-19 and Animals - Can dogs get coronavirus?
What you need to know
We do not know the exact source of the current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but we know that it originally came from an animal, likely a bat.
At this time, there is no evidence that animals play a significant role in spreading the virus that causes COVID-19.
Based on the limited information available to date, the risk of animals spreading COVID-19 to people is considered to be low.
More studies are needed to understand if and how different animals could be affected by COVID-19.
We are still learning about this virus, but it appears that it can spread from people to animals in some situations.
For more information, see COVID-19 and Animals Frequently Asked Questions. For information on pets, see If You Have Pets.

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses. Some coronaviruses cause cold-like illnesses in people, while others cause illness in certain types of animals, such as cattle, camels, and bats. Some coronaviruses, such as canine and feline coronaviruses, infect only animals and do not infect humans.

Risk of animals spreading the virus that causes COVID-19 to people
Some coronaviruses that infect animals can be spread to humans and then spread between people, but this is rare. This is what happened with the virus that caused the current outbreak of COVID-19, with the virus likely originating in bats. The first reported infections were linked to a live animal market, but the virus is now spreading from person to person.

The virus that causes COVID-19 spreads mainly from person to person through respiratory droplets from coughing, sneezing, and talking. Recent studies show that people who are infected but do not have symptoms likely also play a role in the spread of COVID-19. At this time, there is no evidence that animals play a significant role in spreading the virus that causes COVID-19. Based on the limited information available to date, the risk of animals spreading COVID-19 to people is considered to be low. More studies are needed to understand if and how different animals could be affected by COVID-19.

Risk of people spreading the virus that causes COVID-19 to animals
image of a tiger laying on the ground with trees in the background
The first US case of an animal testing positive for COVID-19 was a tiger at a NY zoo.

We are still learning about this virus, but it appears that it can spread from people to animals in some situations, especially after close contact with a person sick with COVID-19.

For information on how to protect pets from possible infection with SARS-CoV-2, see If You Have Pets.

Animals that can be infected with the virus that causes COVID-19
We know that cats, dogs, and a few other types of animals can be infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, but we don’t yet know all of the animals that can get infected. There have been reports of animals being infected with the virus worldwide.

A small number of pet cats and dogs have been reported to be infected with the virus in several countries, including the United States. Most of these pets became sick after contact with people with COVID-19.
Several lions and tigersexternal icon at a New York zoo tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after showing signs of respiratory illness. Public health officials believe these large cats became sick after being exposed to a zoo employee who was infected with SARS-CoV-2. All of these large cats have fully recovered.
SARS-CoV-2 was recently discovered in mink (which are closely related to ferrets) on multiple farms in the Netherlands. The mink showed respiratory and gastrointestinal signs; the farms also experienced an increase in mink deaths. Because some workers on these farms had symptoms of COVID-19, it is likely that infected farm workers were the source of the mink infections. Some farm cats on several mink farms also developed antibodies to this virus, suggesting they had been exposed to the virus at some point. Officials in the Netherlands are investigating the connections between the health of people and animals as well as the environment on these mink farms.
CDC, USDA, and state public health and animal health officials are working in some states to conduct active surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in pets, including cats, dogs, and other small mammals, that had contact with a person with COVID-19. These animals are being tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection and also tested to see whether the pet develops antibodies to this virus. This work is being done to help us better understand how common SARS-CoV-2 infection might be in pets as well as the possible role of pets in the spread of this virus.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) maintains a listexternal icon of all animals with confirmed infections with SARS-CoV-2 in the United States.

Research on animals and COVID-19
Research on SARS-Cov-2 in animals is limited, but studies are underway to learn more about how this virus can affect different animals.

Recent research shows that ferrets, cats, and golden Syrian hamsters can be experimentally infected with the virus and can spread the infection to other animals of the same species in laboratory settings.
A number of studies have investigated non-human primates as models for human infection. Rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques, Grivets, and common marmosets can become infected SARS-CoV-2 and become sick in a laboratory setting.
Mice, pigs, chickens, and ducks do not seem to become infected or spread the infection based on results from these studies.
Data from one study suggest some dogs can get infected but might not spread the virus to other dogs as easily compared to cats and ferrets, which can easily spread the virus to other animals of the same species
These findings were based on a small number of animals, and do not show whether animals can spread infection to people. More studies are needed to understand if and how different animals could be affected by COVID-19.
Courtesy: cdc
7) Can You Catch Covid-19 Twice?
Most scientists say patients gain some immunity to the virus after the first infection

Months into the pandemic, the scientific community’s understanding of Covid-19, the illness caused by the new coronavirus, is rapidly evolving. New reports of patients testing positive, or appearing to suffer symptoms months after initial diagnosis, continues to generate concern that people who have had Covid-19 are getting infected anew.

Here is the latest on what we know, and don’t know, about the possibility of becoming sick with the virus more than once.

I recently recovered from Covid-19. Does that mean I can’t get it again?
Most scientists say that people who have had Covid-19 gain some immunity to the virus that causes it. What they don’t know is whether that protection lasts a few months, a few years or a lifetime.

What factors affect immunity?
The immune system wards off infections by producing antibodies that fight invaders. A range of hereditary and environmental factors, including diet and sleep patterns, typically affect the strength and longevity of those defenses.

Immunity also depends on the pathogen. For example, infection by the virus that causes measles confers lifelong immunity. Others, like the influenza virus, can mutate so rapidly that protective antibodies might not recognize them during a reinfection.

The novel coronavirus mutates more slowly than the influenza virus. That gives researchers hope that any natural immunity, or vaccine, would offer more lasting protection. Even if someone gets sick again, researchers believe a second infection might be milder than the first.

How soon would my body produce antibodies to fight the novel coronavirus after an initial infection?
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says antibodies develop within one to three weeks after infection.

A study involving 34 hospitalized cases in China found that two patients, both in their 80s, produced antibodies within three days of symptom onset. The rest produced them two weeks after symptoms first surfaced. The findings were vetted by other experts and published in an academic journal in March.

Is there any good news?
A group of Chinese researchers reported this month that they had infected six rhesus macaques, allowed them to recover and then reinfected four of them 28 days after the first infection. None became sick again, showing their immune system shielded them from a second infection.

The research, published in Science, says, however, that more studies are needed to understand whether the immune system can shield individuals from reinfection over longer periods of time.

Then why are some people testing positive again?
Roughly 450 South Koreans tested positive for the virus again after meeting the criteria for recovery and being discharged from isolation. The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention re-tested more than half of those people and found no evidence of the live virus circulating.

Peer-reviewed research studies have shown that viral fragments can circulate even after an individual is symptom-free. That doesn’t mean that people are still sick or infectious.

How do I know I’ve fully recovered?
Clinicians have mixed views on what constitutes recovery because long-term data aren’t yet available. Guidelines vary across the globe.

For example, the CDC says that infected individuals are considered recovered if they test negative for the novel coronavirus twice, with tests approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration taken at least 24 hours apart.

Or, individuals must be fever-free for three consecutive days and show an improvement in their other symptoms, including reduced coughing and shortness of breath. At least 10 days should have passed since their symptoms first surfaced.

Some survivors testing negative for the virus say that certain symptoms, such as a loss of taste and smell, can linger for months after other symptoms are gone.
Courtesy: wsj
8) Food and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Currently, there is no evidence to suggest that handling food or consuming food is associated with COVID-19.

Coronaviruses, like the one that causes COVID-19, are thought to spread mostly person-to-person through respiratory droplets when someone coughs, sneezes, or talks. It is possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object, including food or food packaging, that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes. However, this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.

After shopping, handling food packages, or before preparing or eating food, it is important to always wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. Cover all surfaces of your hands and rub them together until they feel dry. Remember, it is always important to follow good food safety practices to reduce the risk of illness from common foodborne pathogens.

The risk of getting COVID-19 from food, treated drinking water, or food packaging is very low
The risk of getting COVID-19 from food you cook yourself or from handling and consuming food from restaurants and takeout or drive-thru meals is thought to be very low. Currently, there is no evidence that food is associated with spreading the virus that causes COVID-19.
The risk of infection by the virus from food products, food packaging, or bags is thought to be very low. Currently, no cases of COVID-19 have been identified where infection was thought to have occurred by touching food, food packaging, or shopping bags.
Although some people who work in food production and processing facilities have gotten COVID-19, there is no evidence of the virus spreading to consumers through the food or packaging that workers in these facilities may have handled.
Food safety in the kitchen
Use proper food safety practices when handling food and before, during and after preparing or eating food.

The virus that causes COVID-19 cannot grow on food. Although bacteria can grow on food, a virus requires a living host like a person or an animal to multiply.
Currently, there is no evidence that the virus that causes COVID-19 spreads to people through food. However, it is important to safely handle and continue to cook foods to their recommended cooking temperaturesexternal icon to prevent foodborne illness.
The virus that causes COVID-19 has not been found in drinking water. The Environmental Protection Agency regulates water treatment plants to ensure that treated water is safe to drink.
Clean surfaces

Regularly clean and disinfect kitchen counters using a commercially available disinfectant productexternal icon or a DIY disinfecting solution with 5 tablespoons (1/3rd cup) unscented liquid chlorine bleach to 1 gallon of water or 4 teaspoons of bleach per quart of water. Leave solution on the surface for at least 1 minute. Before preparing food on the kitchen counter, rinse disinfected surface with water. WARNING: Do not use this solution or other disinfecting products on food or food packaging. Learn moreexternal icon about shopping for food during the COVID-19 pandemic.
If someone in your home is sick, clean and disinfect “high-touch” surfaces daily such as handles, kitchen countertops, faucets, light switches, and doorknobs.
Everyday handling of packaged food and fresh produce
Handling packaged food

When unpacking groceries, refrigerate or freeze meat, poultry, eggs, seafood, and other perishables within 2 hours of purchasing.
Do NOT use disinfectants designed for hard surfaces, such as bleach or ammonia, on food packaged in cardboard or plastic wrap.
If reusable cloth bags become soiled, follow instructions for washing them, and dry them on the warmest appropriate setting.

Handling and cleaning fresh produce

Do NOT wash produce with soap, bleach, sanitizer, alcohol, disinfectant or any other chemical.
Gently rinse fresh fruits and vegetables under cold, running tap water.
Scrub uncut firm produce (e.g., potatoes, cucumbers, melons) with a clean brush, even if you don’t plan to eat the peel.
Salt, pepper, vinegar, lemon juice, and lime juice have not been shown to be effective at removing germs on produce.
Bulk meat, poultry, and seafood purchasing and handling
In response to changes in the food supply chain, some meat and poultry manufacturers, restaurants, and restaurant suppliers have begun selling large amounts of meat, poultry, and seafood directly to consumers. While there is currently no evidence that food can spread the virus that causes COVID-19, there are other important considerations for bulk purchasing.

Harmful bacteria grow fastest between 41°F and 140°F. If you are picking up a meat, poultry or seafood order, bring a cooler and ice packs to keep food at 41°F or colder during transit.
Never allow meat, poultry or seafood that requires refrigeration to sit at room temperature for more than two hours. Never allow meat, poultry, or seafood that requires refrigeration to sit at room temperature for more than one hour if the air temperature is above 90°F.
Once you arrive home, meat, poultry and seafood items should either be prepared immediately or put in the refrigerator or freezer for safe storage.
In case of leaks in the packaging, bring a secondary container or place cases of meat, poultry, or seafood in an area of your vehicle that can be easily clean and sanitized. If leaks occur, thoroughly wash the surface with hot, soapy water or a bleach solution after it comes in contact with raw meat, poultry or seafood, or its juices.
Handling meat from wild animals
Currently, there is no evidence that you can get infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 by eating food, including wild hunted game meat. However, hunters can get infected with other diseases when processing or eating game. Hunters should always practice good hygiene when processing animals by following these food safety recommendations:

Do not harvest animals that appear sick or are found dead.
Keep game meat clean and cool the meat down as soon as possible after harvesting the animal.
Avoid cutting through the backbone and spinal tissues and do not eat the brains of any wild animal.
When handling and cleaning game:
Wear rubber or disposable gloves.
Do not eat, drink, or smoke.
When finished handling and cleaning game:
Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.
Clean knives, equipment, and surfaces that were in contact with game meat with soap and water and then you may choose to disinfect further. While these recommendations apply to general food safety practices, if you are concerned about COVID-19, you may use a product on the EPA list of disinfectantsexternal icon for use against the COVID-19 virus.
Cook all game meat thoroughly (to an internal temperature of 165°F or higher).
Raw wild meat or uncooked dishes containing the blood of wild animals should not be eaten, as such practices place people at high risk of contracting many types of infections.
Check with your state wildlife agency regarding any testing requirements for other diseases and for any specific instructions regarding preparing, transporting, and consuming game meat.
COVID-19 and nutrition for health
To help cope with stress that may be related to the pandemic, take care of your body including good nutrition, as part of self-care.
Dietary supplements aren’t meant to treat or prevent COVID-19. Certain vitamins and mineralsexternal icon (e.g., Vitamins C and D, zinc) may have effects on how our immune system works to fight off infections, as well as inflammation and swelling.
The best way to obtain these nutrients is through foods: Vitamin Cexternal icon in fruits and vegetables, Vitamin Dexternal icon in low-fat milk, fortified milk alternatives, and seafood, and zincexternal icon in lean meat, seafood, legumes, nuts, and seeds.
In some cases, dietary supplementsexternal icon may have unwanted effects, especially if taken in too large amounts, before surgery, or with other dietary supplements or medicines, or if you have certain health conditions.
If you are considering taking vitamins or dietary supplements, talk with your pharmacist, registered dietitian, or other healthcare provider before taking, especially when combining or substituting them with other foods or medicine.
With changes in food availability in some communities, you may be consuming more canned or packaged food. Tips on purchasing canned and packaged goods using the Nutrition Facts labelexternal icon are available. In addition, helpful food planning is available at MyPlateexternal icon.
Getting the right amount of nutritious food like plenty of fruits and vegetables, lean protein, and whole grains is important for health. If you or your household need help in obtaining nutritious food, find additional resources at USDA Nutrition Assistance Programexternal icon, or call the USDA National Hunger Hotline at 1-866-3-HUNGRY or 1-877-8-HAMBRE to speak with a representative who will find food resources such as meal sites, food banks, and other social services available near your location.
Courtesy: cdc

MateFit Guru

MateFit Guru is a content writer. We are from Missouri in the Midwestern United States and its nickname is the Show Me State. Mate is from Yerba Mate Fit is from Fitness.